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Fifth column

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Fifth column, clandestine group or faction of subversive agents who attempt to undermine a nation’s solidarity by any means at their disposal. The term is conventionally credited to Emilio Mola Vidal, a Nationalist general during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39). As four of his army columns moved on Madrid, the general referred to his militant supporters within the capital as his “fifth column,” intent on undermining the loyalist government from within.

A cardinal technique of the fifth column is the infiltration of sympathizers into the entire fabric of the nation under attack and, particularly, into positions of policy decision and national defense. From such key posts, fifth-column activists exploit the fears of a people by spreading rumours and misinformation, as well as by employing the more standard techniques of espionage and sabotage.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Brian Duignan, Senior Editor.


Diggs: What does a 'feel good' history look like?

There is a lot discussion about rewriting our history classes in South Dakota.

The rhetoric is that our present curriculum teaches kids to hate America. There&rsquos a belief in some circles that presenting history in a way that doesn&rsquot make kids feel proud of their country will make them hate it. That is a weak idea &mldr at best.

If history is used to generate a &ldquofeel good factor&rdquo rather than deliver the most accurate account of historical events possible, we will be setting our kids up for failure. Not knowing our true history will doom us to repeat it.

How can we improve our country if we can&rsquot study the things we got wrong and work on getting them right? How do we bring our country together if we tell our kids feel good stories that paint historical figures and events mythically rather than objectively?

How do we address issues like slavery? Do we pretend it didn&rsquot happen because it might make our kids feel ashamed? Do we portray slavers as benevolent people who gave economic opportunities and religion to Africans who were living as savages? Or do we let our young people know that slavery represents some of the worst examples of human cruelty and depravity. White supremacists will likely want to whitewash our vile slavery history. Their game plans and motivations are clear.

How do we teach about the cruelty on which America was developed? Do we leave out all of the misery inflicted on indigenous people? Do we not mention the historical attempts at genocide? Do we not mention the broken treaties? How do we tell America&rsquos story without telling their story?

Will this &ldquofeel good&rdquo version of history explain how and why some people are disadvantaged or will it be used to support the white supremacists&rsquo narrative? It feels like the latter is the whole point of this &ldquofeel good history&rdquo effort.

While we may substitute history with half-truths and bald-faced lies, others in the world will still learn the truths we leave out. While others will be able to support their version of our history with objective, mutually verifiable data, our children will be left with comic strip versions of fairytales told to appease racists and jingoists and make some Americans feel good by writing out the actual histories of others. That will put our children and our country at a great disadvantage. I have seen this happen in other countries. I don&rsquot want this to happen in mine.

If we are going to improve our history courses, I propose we do so based on objective, mutually verifiable data. Let&rsquos tell the story of all Americans rather than help weave the white supremacist narrative.

We should add context and clarification so that our kids recognize that great people and great countries also have great flaws. They, like us, are not all bad nor all good.

Let&rsquos help our kids to use history as a tool to help make our nation operate better and become stronger.


Column - History

Published 9:30 am Wednesday, June 9, 2021

O n the first Sunday in June in Monterey, Tennessee, where I was born, citizens celebrate Decoration Day. There are two main cemeteries in this small town, and most of us whose heritage dates to the pioneer days honor the remains of those we love by decorating their graves with flowers.

When my parents and brother were still living, we tried our best to visit on Decoration Day no matter where we resided. Every June, as we walked among the headstones, Dad would tell us stories regarding uncles, aunts, friends, or grandparents as tears fell from their memory.

When many relatives were still living, we held large reunions complete with picnics after placing flowers atop graves in both cemeteries. More old tales were recounted as laughter filled the air.

Before we left to travel to our various homes, we would drive by the old graveyards and view them alive with color as flowers adorned nearly every grave. It was a sight to behold.

After years passed, Daddy’s stories were silenced, reunions ended, and grief replaced joy because most of my family was gone. As a result, a sense of loneliness and grief began to creep into my soul.

You know how God has a way of always working things out? Unfortunately, we often don’t recognize his plan, but sometimes it is as clear as the raindrop that fell Decoration Sunday on my Great Grandmother’s grave in Monterey.

After I began writing six years ago, I was delighted when I heard from relatives and friends in places I once lived as a child. They were from Tennessee’s hills, valleys, and cities to LaGrange, Georgia, where I moved when I was 15. I love communicating with these precious folks and sharing our memories of times together.

Since a few of my columns evolved around my heritage, I reconnected with some long-lost cousins and an entire town. I was only four when we moved away from our Monterey family. However, in the past year, a deep affection developed with this mountain town, where it doesn’t matter how old you were when you left they still welcome you home.

One of those cousins is Bobby. When I hear him talk or watch his blue eyes twinkle while he tells many a story, I am reminded of Dad. Bobby says I talk a lot, and I do, but then so does he, and I thankfully realize the old silence is now broken.

On a prior visit to Monterey earlier this year, I met Patsy. She is another of those long-lost relatives. Our great grandparents buried two children and a grandchild due to the Spanish flu epidemic between 1918 to 1920. Patsy’s grandmother, Sallie Belle, and my grandfather, Sallie’s brother, succumbed to the flu, as well as my Dad’s little sister, Bertha Nell.

“Lynn, I have never been able to find my grandmother’s grave,” Patsy announced soon after I met her.

“Well, I am sure it is in the older Whittaker cemetery. Maybe her headstone is missing, but I feel positive she is there.” I replied after she told me the story. However, it bothered me that my great aunt Sallie Belle’s gravesite was missing.

Raindrops started to fall as I walked with cousin Bobby among the headstones on Sunday morning. We put flowers on family graves in the old cemetery and looked for little Bertha Nell’s lamb topped stone. I finally found it and laid dainty yellow flowers beside her. Bobby and I were puzzled about why she was buried in a different location than her parents.

I noticed there was a worn monument beside her that one could barely read. When I touched the stone, I ran my fingers across the words which spelled Sallie Belle, who died in 1918. I called Patsy immediately, and joy began to replace a haunting sadness.

Near where they are buried, Sue takes donations to maintain the cemetery grounds under a green awning.

As I wrote my check, Sue asked, “Are you Lynn, the one who writes?” Then, after responding affirmatively, she began to tell me about another sweet uncle of mine, and the stories started to whirl just as my father’s tales once did in the mountains on a June Sunday.

“I have a renewed interest in cemeteries!” Bobby texted after I returned to Georgia. I responded, “Cemeteries are where our histories are written in stone.” But, as I typed those words, I also thought, it is where the lost are found, where stories spin around flowers as families gather, and where joyous memories replace sorrow.

God always has a way of working things out. Have you noticed?

OUR VIEW: New city hall location a big step for Hogansville

For years, Hogansville has talked about eventually moving city hall into a new location. Over the years, city leaders have. read more


Column: History comes alive at Minnesota West

WORTHINGTON — Too many people think history is just a list of names and dates to memorize. Just “one damn thing after another,” as British historian Arnold Toynbee (allegedly) said.

History at Minnesota West is not an endless list of names, dates and facts. Here, history is a story, but it is not one grand narrative. Rather, it is a collection of many stories — all of our stories — which together make up the history of the United States and the world, much like a patchwork quilt is created from many different pieces of fabric. Stories of laborers who fought for better working conditions and farmers who fought for a more responsive federal government. Stories of immigrants who sought better lives and opportunities. Stories of writers, musicians and artists who created cultural treasures.

Sometimes we learn about these stories firsthand when guest speakers visit a class. Examples include a member of the Upper Sioux Community who talked about his ancestors’ experiences in the Dakota War of 1862 a young woman from Worthington who shared her immigrant story and the first African American to hold statewide office in Minnesota, Keith Ellison, who explained what he does as Attorney General.

History is also more than wars, politics or economics. It is all the facets of human experience, many of which are brought into the classroom.

History is art and architecture. We consider classic paintings such as “Washington Crossing the Delaware” and discuss what message the artist was trying to convey in the piece. We go on virtual reality tours of the Great Pyramids of Egypt, the cathedrals of Europe and the Parthenon in Greece.

History is food. Occasionally, we sample foods from the cultures and places we study: cheese and salami from Italy, olives from Greece, SPAM from Minnesota. In World History class, we learned about the Columbian Exchange by eating a fruit salad and determining if a particular piece of fruit originated in the “Old World” or the “New World.” As student Angel Flores remarked: “All the food and virtual tours just made you feel like you were there, and it just brought a different perspective on history.”

History is music and poetry. We listen to period music in order to understand how music — like everything else — has changed over time. Some of it sounds unusual to our modern ears, such as troubadour music from Medieval Europe or Turkish folk songs from the Ottoman Empire. Some music has a more familiar sound such as ragtime, jazz or rock ‘n roll. Poetry also helps us better understand the times and places we study. The voice of Langston Hughes reading “I, Too, Sing America” or Allen Ginsberg reading his poem “Howl” provide new insights into the experiences of everyday Americans living in the past.

History is fashion. Occasionally, I dress in period costume to demonstrate what women living in a particular time in history would have worn: a Southern belle, a suffragette, a flapper or a hippie.

Art, architecture, food, music, poetry and fashion make history come alive. “Western Civilization was such a fun class to be in,” said Hope Stanton, a recent Minnesota West graduate. Another student, Morgan Powers, added: “Class was exciting and entertaining. You never know what you get each day when you walk into the classroom, but it is guaranteed to be lively and interesting."

A lively and interesting patchwork quilt of stories. That’s history. And that’s what history classes are at Minnesota West.

Anita Gaul is a member of the history faculty at Minnesota West.


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Just to be certain, your database is an ACCDB, not an MDB, correct?

Assuming it is, is the AppendOnly property of the memo field set to True?

And actually, I believe the code is =Application.ColumnHistory([RecordSource],"Comments","[ID] thread-message-content-body-signature">Doug Steele, Microsoft Access MVP
www.AccessMVP.com/djsteele

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Yes, I am working with an ACCDB. I have made the AppendOnly change, and have tried the code you posted both as the record source (just typed in the box) and as VBA code.

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Sorry, but since ColumnHistory is a design decision I disagree with vehemently (it's not proper normalization: each history entry should be a separate row in a related table, not clumped together in a single field!), it's not something I've actually used, so I can't offer any additional pointers.

Good luck with your project.

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Sorry, but since ColumnHistory is a design decision I disagree with vehemently (it's not proper normalization: each history entry should be a separate row in a related table, not clumped together in a single field!), it's not something I've actually used, so I can't offer any additional pointers.

Good luck with your project.

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Yes, I am working with an ACCDB. I have made the AppendOnly change, and have tried the code you posted both as the record source (just typed in the box) and as VBA code.

with no luck

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As this seams to not be the ideal approach to creating a record history for a memo field.

What would you suggest, and how do I do it? (I.E. any good links?)

I am working with a microsoft SQL 2008 R2 backend with a Access 2007 front end.

Thank you both for your help thus far,

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As this seams to not be the ideal approach to creating a record history for a memo field.

What would you suggest, and how do I do it? (I.E. any good links?)

I am working with a microsoft SQL 2008 R2 backend with a Access 2007 front end.


I'm a little puzzled by that last statement, since I would have thought the AppendOnly property and ColumnHistory feature would only work with a .accdb back-end. However, I can't say for sure how this is handled by Access, so I won't say, "No wonder it didn't work!"

Anyway, the idea behind recording a record history for a table is to create a related table, linked many-to-one on the primary key field of the main table. In addition to the foreign key and its own primary key, this table would have a date field and a note field, which might be a text field or a memo field, depending on how much information you want to store in an individual note. You might also have a userID field to record who made the change.

It isn't clear to me whether this table is intended as an automatic update-history recorder, in which case you'd have code in a form's AfterUpdate and Delete events to add records to the history table, or if you intend for the user to make manual entries into the table, in which case you'd probably have a continuous subform on your main form to enter notes.


Overview

Trajan’s Column in Rome has served as a prominent landmark and a symbol of imperial power of the capital city since it was dedicated at the height of the emperor’s reign in 113 CE. Standing today in isolation, the Column was a focal point of the great forum and market complex built by Trajan to complement a group of older imperial fora clustered on the north side of the venerable Forum Romanum itself. The Trajanic project was funded by the rich spoils Trajan brought to Rome as booty from the Dacian Wars, a conflict waged in two separate campaigns over the years 101-102 and 105-106 CE.

Trajan’s commemorative Column is, ironically, one of the best preserved and least accessible monuments left to us from the ancient city. It has survived essentially intact, missing only its original painted decoration, the metal attachments that added detail to the sculpted figures, and of course the great bronze statue of the emperor himself that once crowned the top of the column (the statue of St. Peter was added by Pope Sixtus V in 1588). The reliefs that decorate the Column constitute a continuous frieze some 200 meters long that spirals twenty-three times around the shaft, beginning at the bottom with scenes of preparation and departure that anticipate the first Dacian campaign. In Trajan’s day the Column stood in a rectangular court, surrounded on two sides (southwest and northeast) by libraries, on a third (southeast) by the Basilica Ulpia, and on the fourth by a monumental portal that granted access to the northwest side of the forum complex. It is probable that Roman-period visitors to the forum could observe the sculpted reliefs from multiple vantage points on upper floors of these surrounding buildings. Even with this ancient advantage, only one side of the Column could be observed at any time.

Given the prominence of this important monument and its distinctive place in Roman history, it comes as little surprise that the Column of Trajan has drawn the attention of artists and scholars from early times. Even in its own day its completion was celebrated by special coin issues that depicted its imposing height. The purpose of this website is to document the history and significance of the Column through images (photographs and drawings) and text (both primary and secondary sources), with a goal of providing students of Roman history, art history, and archaeology a comprehensive understanding of the monument.

The website’s overall contents can be found on the site index. If you are searching for a particular kind of scene or subject depicted on the Column, start by consulting the included glossary which offers quick links to images.

This website is being updated on a regular basis: Latest changes: 4 January 2018.


2 Answers 2

You can achieve this through the same workflow you use to send the emails.

Add a multi-line text column to the library to store the history. When the workflow runs, store the current value of the field in a workflow variable. Then set the field value to be the workflow variable plus the new information.

For instance, if you have the workflow set to run on item updated, the logic could be something like this (pseudo-workflow-code, but you get the idea):

As you can see, I am using a comma to separate the values, but you can use whatever you want.

Also, of course, you might need some extra logic in there to determine if the history column needs updating at all.

In order to check if a variable is empty, select the condition "If any value equals value", select the variable you want to check as the first value, and then click on the word "equals" in the workflow step. You will see a menu that gives you several different comparison options, one of which is "is empty".


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Recent History

The Christian Byzantines invaded Greece in the sixth century A.D. and forbade worshipping the Greek Gods. As such, the Parthenon was transformed into a Christian Church. It remained a symbol of Christianity until 1458 A.D until the Ottoman conquest, which has seen the building this time being converted into a mosque.

In 1687, forced by the assault from the Holy League, the historic structure was attacked with cannonballs. Its ammunition dump was ignited by one of the bombardments, resulting in an explosion, leaving hundreds dead, and severe damage to Parthenon. Once a formidable symbol of Greece, it sat in ruins and became a subject of looting.

In the early 19th century, the 7th Earl of Elgin, Thomas Bruce, took some of the marble friezes and sculptures and brought them to London. Now called the “Elgin Marbles,” they are on display in the British Museum. It is shrouded in mystery whether Elgin acquired permission to take the pieces, and Greece is still requesting to have them returned.

Parthenon continued to suffer massive damage following the Greek’s war of independence against the Turks. Though the country was liberated in 1830, it was only in the 1970s when the government became serious about the restoration of the Parthenon and the Acropolis. Since then, numerous large-scale works have been undertaken for the country’s national treasure.

Though the Parthenon cannot be reinstated in its pristine condition, it still reflects a huge part of its rich past and its awe-inspiring framework. Today, it is one of the most visited landmarks in Greece and globally, proving its gargantuan historical, cultural, and architectural value.


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Comments:

  1. Shaktile

    obviously you were wrong ...

  2. Daniel-Sean

    well, nicho so ... well.

  3. Voodookree

    This excellent idea is just about

  4. Riobard

    Interestingly, is there an analogue?

  5. Jefferson

    What magnificent words



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