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28 December 1943
Soviet troops cut the Polotsk-Vitebsk railway
Britain and Turkey enter talks that eventually lead to Turkey entering the war
How the WWII Tehran Conference Tested the Unity of the 'Big Three' Allies
For four days in November-December 1943, as World War II raged, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin met in secret in the Iranian capital of Tehran. Code named Eureka, the Tehran Conference was the first time all three Allied leaders had ever been face to face. Churchill may have exaggerated only slightly in saying that it “probably represented the greatest concentration of worldly power that had ever been seen in the history of mankind.”
Expectations for the conference ran high on all sides. Its goal was not only to agree on a strategy to crush the Axis powers of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, but to decide what the postwar world should look like𠅊ssuming, of course, that the Allies actually won. That was a lot to achieve in their brief time together, especially given that not one of the three men totally trusted the other two. But they all knew the stakes. Failing to get past their differences could easily prolong the war or, worse still, put Adolf Hitler and Emperor Hirohito on a path to victory.
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The Harper Herald (Harper, Tex.), Vol. 28, No. 52, Ed. 1 Friday, December 24, 1943 , newspaper , December 24, 1943 Harper, Texas . (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth896889/: accessed June 21, 2021 ), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, https://texashistory.unt.edu crediting Harper Library .
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The Humble Echo (Humble, Tex.), Vol. 2, No. 28, Ed. 1 Friday, December 24, 1943
Weekly newspaper from Humble, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.
eight pages : ill. page 18 x 13 in. Scanned from physical pages.
This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Texas Digital Newspaper Program and was provided by the Humble Museum to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 12 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.
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28 December 1943 - History
Kentucky - 61 (Head Coach: Adolph Rupp)
Carnegie Tech - 14 (Head Coach: Max Hannum)
Halftime Score: Kentucky 27, Carnegie Tech 7
Officials: Lieutenant Vince McNamara and Chuck Lyman
Arena: Buffalo Memorial Auditorium
References: Lexington Herald , Lexington Leader and Rochester (NY) Democrat and Chronicle
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This Day in Naval History - Operation Stonewall, December 28, 1943
was a World War II operation to intercept blockade runners off the west coast of France. It was an effective example of inter-service and inter-national co-operation.
From the start of the war, the Allies had maintained a blockade against the import by Germany of seaborne goods. Although rich in many basic industrial materials, Germany, like Britain, could not produce some essentials. These included rubber, tin and tungsten.
Until the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 (Operation Barbarossa), the blockade was evaded via the Trans-Siberian Railway and large quantities of materials were shipped by this route. Once this was closed, German and Italian ships, stranded in Japan and Occupied Singapore, were used to bring in these essentials to ports in Occupied France. These were the blockade runners.
Although an organised interdiction against these blockade runners could not be set up until December 1943, several ships were intercepted and sunk in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Few actually managed successful runs.
The New Zealand cruiser, HMNZS Gambia, joined the operation in December, 1943, and operated from Horta, in the Azores, with HMS Glasgow, patrolling an area north of the islands.
On 23rd December 1943, aircraft from the American escort carrier USS Card spotted a suspected runner, and there were further reports of a flotilla of destroyers escorting another merchantman west from France. HMS Gambia, HMS Glasgow, and HMS Enterprise formed a cordon to intercept. Aircraft attacked the flotilla, now escorting an incoming merchantman (SS Osorno), reporting a hit and a near miss on Osorno.
More warships, HMS Ariadne, HMS Penelope, and four Free French destroyers, joined the patrol to intercept another runner.
On Christmas day, 1943 a radio message from the submarine U-305 was intercepted, this would mean the end of the blockade runner Alsterufer.
On 27th December the Alsterufer, under the code name Trave, was intercepted by 423 Squadron, 422 Squadron RCAF, and one from other Squadron from Canada.
311 Czechoslovak Squadron RAF:
Aircraft from RAF Coastal Command acted in close co-operation, before the Allied ships and an RAF strike force could make contact.
Alsterufer was attacked repeatedly and her radio was disabled. Some hours later the shadowing RAF Coastal Command bomber, a Liberator of 311 Czechoslovak Squadron RAF, commanded by Lieutenant Odrich, set her on fire with bombs and rockets. She was then bombed again by two RAF Coastal Command Liberators from 86 Squadron RAF, then the Germans decided to scuttle the ship.
Fifty two survivors were rescued two days later by corvettes of the 6th Escort Group of the Royal Canadian Navy and other ships picked up twenty men.
A cargo of 344 tons of tungsten concentrate that would have met the needs of German Industry for a year, went down with her.
The German destroyers and torpedo boats had set out to meet and escort Alsterufer, in an operation codenamed Bernau, and now HMS Glasgow and HMS Enterprise sought to intercept them. Guided by shadowing Coastal Command aircraft, the cruisers intercepted eight destroyers in the early afternoon of 28th December and exchanged fire with them. Despite accurate German gunfire and torpedoes, effective German evading action and an attack with guided bombs by a Luftwaffe aircraft, the British ships maintained contact.
THE battle of the bay of biscay:
The German ships divided into two groups and the cruisers pursued one of these. By 1600hrs, two Elbing class torpedo boats (T25 and T26) and the Narvik class destroyer Z27 had been sunk and one had been damaged, but escaped. About 62 survivors were picked up by British minesweepers, 168 by a small Irish steamer, the MV Kerlogue, and 4 by Spanish destroyers. The blockade runner Osorno reached the Gironde, but struck a wreck in the estuary. She was beached and subsequently unloaded offshore.
HMS Glasgow, HMS Enterprise and HMS Ariadne returned to Plymouth, and HMS Penelope to Gibraltar. More blockade runners from the Far East were expected, so HMS Gambia and HMS Mauritius maintained the cruiser patrol north of the Azores for the next three days. HMS Gambia then returned to Plymouth on 1st January 1944.
28 December 1943 - History
The several military missions have agreed upon future military operations against Japan. The Three Great Allies expressed their resolve to bring unrelenting pressure against their brutal enemies by sea, land, and air. This pressure is already mounting.
The Three Great Allies are fighting this war to restrain and punish the aggression of Japan. They covet no gain for themselves and have no thought of territorial expansion.
It is their purpose that Japan shall be stripped of all the islands in the Pacific which she has seized or occupied since the beginning of the first World War in 1914, and that all the territories Japan has stolen form the Chinese, such as Manchuria, Formosa, and the Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China.
Japan will also be expelled from all other territories which she has taken by violence and greed. The aforesaid three great powers, mindful of the enslavement of the people of Korea, are determined that in due course Korea shall become free and independent.
With these objects in view the three Allies, in harmony with those of the United Nations at war with Japan, will continue to persevere in the serious and prolonged operations necessary to procure the unconditional surrender of Japan.
The first of only two wartime meetings between the three leaders, the Tehran Conference opened with Stalin brimming with confidence after several major victories on the Eastern Front.
Opening the meeting, Roosevelt and Churchill sought to ensure Soviet cooperation in achieving the Allies' war policies. Stalin was willing to comply, however he demanded Allied support for his government and the partisans in Yugoslavia, as well as border adjustments in Poland. Agreeing to Stalin's demands, the meeting moved onto the planning of Operation Overlord (D-Day) and the opening of a second front in Western Europe.
From the memoirs published by those who took part in the negotiations in Tehran, it would appear that Stalin dominated the conference. Alan Brook, chief of the British General Staff, was later to say: "I rapidly grew to appreciate the fact that he had a military brain of the very highest calibre. Never once in any of his statements did he make any strategic error, nor did he ever fail to appreciate all the implications of a situation with a quick and unerring eye. In this respect he stood out compared with Roosevelt and Churchill."
In return for America’s help in defeating Germany on the eastern front, Stalin promised to help the United States win its war against Japan. The meeting was so friendly that Churchill later expressed unease at Roosevelt’s extraordinary effort to charm and accommodate Stalin. Churchill would have preferred an indirect assault on Germany to Overlord, and mistrusted the Soviet leader. For his part, Stalin wanted a territorial buffer between the Soviet Union and Germany, made up of the former Baltic nations, Poland and part of Germany, to be part of any post-war peace settlement.
The most important Allied conference of the war was held in Tehran, Iran between 28 November and 1 December. Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin met together for the very first time, and key issues like the future shape of Poland and Germany were discussed.
How to erase your history in any browser
The browsing history options, as seen here in Microsoft Edge, are usually easy to find. David Nield
No matter what browser you prefer, they all make it relatively easy to delete your history within a few minutes.
In Google Chrome, click the three dots to the right of the address bar to open the menu, then choose Settings. Scroll down to Privacy & Security, then Clear browsing data. Make your choices from the list, set the time period you’d like to clear, then click the Clear data button. Note: If you’ve set the browser to sync with other computers via your Google account, clearing your history will also erase data across all the other devices where you’ve signed into Chrome. Clicking into Advanced will give you more options for deleting data including the saved passwords you have in your browser.
Those using Mozilla Firefox should click the three horizontal lines to the right of the address bar to open the Firefox menu, then pick Options. Click Privacy & Security and then scroll down to the Cookies & Site Data section. Here, you can clear your data completely or manage your data to have more control over what gets deleted. You can also check the box that clears your browsing data every time you close Firefox if you don’t want to have to worry about doing it manually.
If you’re using Apple Safari on macOS, you can blitz your browsing history by opening the Safari menu and clicking Clear History. Choose the time period you want to erase from the drop-down menu, then click Clear History to confirm the action. When you clear your history in Safari, you won’t get the option to delete different types of data, so it will wipe your cookies and cached files along with your history.
Windows 10 users who are using Microsoft Edge browser a whirl can also clear their browsing history. Click the three dots to the right of the address bar, then pick Settings from the menu that appears. In the Privacy, search and services tab, find Clear browsing data and click Choose what to clear. Next, make your choices from the list, which includes browsing history and cached data, then click Clear.
Opera lets you simply select data types and then delete them. David Nield/Popular Science
If you’re still running Internet Explorer, you can clear your browsing history by clicking the cog icon in the top-right corner, then choosing Internet options. On the subsequent dialog box, open the General tab and click Delete under Browsing history. Then pick your data types and click Delete to finish the operation.
Finally, in the Windows version of the popular third-party browser Opera, click Menu in the top left of the screen. Then hit History and Clear browsing data to find the right dialog box. Choose your types of data, specify your time period, and click Clear data. On macOS, Opera requires a slightly different process: Open the menu and select Clear browsing data. You’ll end up with the same history-clearing options—types of data, time period, etc.—that you would get in the Windows version. Hit Clear browsing data and you’re done.
David Nieldis a tech journalist from the UK who has been writing about gadgets and apps since way before the iPhone and Twitter were invented. When he's not busy doing that, he usually takes breaks from all things tech with long walks in the countryside.